The expected impact of the programme is: " Women and men, girls and boys, strengthen trust with the local and national government entities in urban areas to uphold rights and achieve safe, secure and inclusive cities, and empowered as an active stakeholders of the governance and social systems.”This is a vital long-term expected result/ impact aimed since AUPP and continues to the next phase, AUSSP. Improved legitimacy of government and trust between citizens, especially the Police and Municipalities, are essential for further building safer and secure cities, improve state-society relations, and strengthening fragile context still facing significant security risks.Under AUPP, citizens increasingly witnessed the state as a credible service-provider based on their visible efforts to deliver basic services and promote safety and security in cities. The government assisted by AUPP increased the accountability and transparency of local authorities and made institutions more responsive to the needs of the population, especially women, youth, IDPs/ returnees and the vulnerable and excluded groups. AUSSP will further strengthen the demand-driven policy development and participatory governance mechanism, making people an active key player of the governance and social systems. Community Policing will also increase its legitimacy with established approach and methodology to be applied by the trained staff in the Province and Kabul levels. To achieve the overall impact, the programme includes three outcomes:Outcome 1: Community level:Increased engagement of and benefit to communities, particularly excluded and under-represented groups (women, children, youth and IDPs/ returnees) in municipal governance and urban safety services.The important approach that AUSSP continues to take is the bottom-up approach. For the lasting change for inclusive society and participatory governance, the cultivation of culture should be encouraged at the grassroots level. AUSSP will directly engage with people and communities together with municipalities and police to produce a tangible impact on their lives, and promote active inclusion of marginalised groups such as women, youth, IDPs and refugees. The programme intents to empower urban residents as drivers of change and emphasize that inclusive society benefit everyone and minimize the safety and security risks for all. This change will improve the trust in government as a reliable partner to work hand in hand and therefore participation is an essential part of their civil lives. This outcome builds on directly from the lessons learnt of AUPP as well as UN-Habitat's experiences with over 20 years of community-based development programming. The outcome will see a tangible improvement in the living conditions and safety and security environment of poor and excluded urban communities. Existing Community Development Councils (CDCs) will be (re)mobilised and strengthened to include security and safety functions. The composition of the CDCs will consider representation of marginalised groups by requiring at least one representative as women, and another belonging to the IDP/refugee families. The requirement for minimum participation in CDC will serve as a check and balance against any asymmetries in representation. New CDCs will be formed to ensure alignment with CCAP and to reduce overlaps and conflicts. This will further foster the legitimization of CDC as a formal grassroots level unit for urban development in municipal jurisdiction.Communities and CDCs will undertake or review their neighbourhood safety assessments and plans and implement service and infrastructure projects in conjunction with the Municipality's City/ Nahia Action Plans to address the needs of the communities including women, youth, and IDPs/ returnees.In parallel to the existing CDC mechanism, establishment of women groups in the community will be further facilitated. The groups will function as a physical and psychological place for women to gather, rely on each other or discuss their problems and solutions in society, community or at home. The groups can address particular needs of women and/ or escalate the needs to the community level for the CDCs to respond. CDCs are a practical way for women and other vulnerable groups to engage in governance and decision-making, but the women groups will support and complement the functions and activities of CDCs and promote wider participation of women to the governance and societies through self-empowerment. Outcome 2: Municipal level:Improved municipal governance and delivery of safety servicesAfghan municipalities have a clear mandate and responsibility to manage city development and deliver services within their boundaries. AUPP experience has suggested that improved citizen trust and government legitimacy is directly linked with (i) demand-driven service delivery and (ii) opportunities for citizen engagement in municipal planning and management processes. 'Demand-driven' means local authority engagement with citizens to understand their needs and priorities and reflect these in urban management systems and project design and implementation. AUSSP will further strengthen the municipalities to be responsible and accountable through active engagement of the Mayors and municipal staff in all stages of project design to implementation. The link between people and municipalities will be supported through improved MAB functions to be more accountable as people's representative with frequent information sharing and consultations, and encouraging Mayors and municipalities to be more serious in taking into account MAB's suggestions and recommendations. In addition, AUSSP will be the first programme to directly work with the Directorate of Urban Governance (DUG) in each province for their capacity building through IDLG/ DMM. DUG is the newly established Directorate in the municipality by DMM for strengthening governance functions at the local level and willing to promote safety and security in the urban areas. AUSSP will assist DUG to develop their work plans and review their current capacities for implementing the plans, which informs the gaps for attaining their ultimate goals where AUSSP can support to plug in the gap and improve their capacity for delivery as per DUG mandate.The dialogues between municipality, police and the communities will be continued with more focus on follow-up actions. AUPP successfully established the mechanism for two-way communications of people and municipality/ police, however suggested the necessity for the feedback and follow-up sessions and actions in order to solve the situations, stop recurrence of the same problems and reflect these lessons learnt to the municipal urban planning and management. A formal mechanism for tracking records of the discussions at the community and the city levels is also needed for proper follow up as well as exchange experiences with other cities to learn each other.Outcome 3: National level: Enhanced national framework on accountable municipal governance in the area of safety and security This outcome will see an improvement in the enabling and policy environment for promoting safe, secure and inclusive cities. The community policing approach of the Ministry of the Interior Affairs will be advanced with more national-local coordination of the activities between MoI/ PeM and the PeM units of the cities. This will ensure maintaining the standard operations of community policing to be implemented in every communities and lessons learnt to be disseminated by the central focal point. Ministry of Women's Affairs, a new line ministry will receive several rounds of learning session on urban safety and security to address tangled issues and challenges the Afghan women are facing. The qualitative and quantitative research undertaken under AUSSP will provide the basis to spearhead a national level study on women's safety issued in Afghanistan and cross-cutting across a hierarchy of cities covered under the programme. Findings from the study would enable re-shaping the policy, guideline or action plans of MoWA to incorporate a component for safety and security to advance women's status and participation to governance, social system and labour market.Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MUDH) and IDLG are the main government entities engaged in the urban policy, planning and urban management. Urban safety and resilience must be mainstreamed into the agendas of these two government entities to develop a national level mandate. IDLG, which oversees DUG and municipalities, is directly engaged as an implementing partner of AUSSP. The policy framework for urban safety and security needs to be integrated in the urban planning and design process currently under the purview of MUDH. AUSSP will encourage coordination with MUDH in review of the master plans and projects planned for implementation in the target cities with a lens of urban safety and security.There will be several researches conducted under this component. Public space audit will look into the available public space, people's access to these spaces and facilities, safety and security of the space, status of maintenance, etc. to see the gaps between existing spaces and the needs, advocate equal access to public spaces for all, and inform necessity of proper maintenance mechanism. The result will be encouraged for incorporation into the municipal or national urban planning and implementation. Another research will be about the nexus of urban safety and security and economic development. This may give more legitimacy of and interest in Safer Cities Programme such as AUPP or AUSSP to be a proven initiative or drive engine for healthy urban development. The research needs to give special attention on women, youth, IDPs/ returnees and other marginalised and vulnerable groups' participation to the labour market and see whether safer and secure environment will facilitate their access to employment opportunities, thus contribute to local economic development and increase the productivity of each industrial sector. The researches will be published and disseminated widely and the data will be compiled into the knowledge management database for the further utilization for other researches or government policy development.Outputs 1.1 – 3.2Annex 2 explains the details of Outputs to achieve three Outcomes and specifies necessary actions and steps towards Outputs. This will be reviewed at the mid-point review and/ or ad hoc basis as necessary to add/ revise/ delete the activities and target numbers to suit to the field reality and best approach to the Programme goal.